Unsinkable Thinkable – The Titanic, The Olympic & The Britannic

Early in the morning of 15th April 1912, the unthinkable happened to the unsinkable, it sank. The maiden voyage of the White Star Lines Fleet ship “Titanic” was forebode as a disaster even before this trip.   Everyone knows more or less the story of the sinking, so I am taking a different tack on its origins, construction, associations and sinister rumors, which abound regarding the lesser-known aspects of the White Stars 3 Olympic class ships.

Conception

In 1907 a discussion was had between two very successful J’s, the White Star Lines chairman J. Bruce Ismay and the American financier J. Pierpont Morgan.  Ismays Company was owned by Pierponts Mother Company and as result both were losing out to the faster passenger ships of the Cunard line, notably the Lusitania (my grand uncle actually went down with this ship in 1915).  Instead of trying to compete for speed they changed the playing field and opted for size.  Three ships were to be constructed in a new Olympic size class, which would offer the most sumptuous luxury crossing of the Atlantic to those who could afford it.

This tender went out to the Belfast shipbuilding firm of Harland & Wolff who had been building ships since 1861.  No expense was to be spared in the most innovative construction and fittings; 3 million pounds sterling was allocated for the first two of the three vessels.  Everything about the magnitude of these ships was innovative, the two slips to release them had to be specifically made from three regular slips.   They all employed a combination of reciprocating engines with a centre low-pressure turbine, as opposed to the steam turbines used on the Cunard vessels.

Hull 400 – The Olympic Ship

The Olympic ship was the lead ship of this triumvirate and construction began three months earlier than the Titanic to accommodate the pressure the shipyards would be under from such an order.   It was hull no. 400 built by Harland & Wolff.  She was launched on October 20th 1910 with an id no.131346.  Her maiden voyage began on June 14th 1911 at which time she was the largest ocean liner in the world.

Her first mishap occurred on September 20th of the same year when she collided with the British warship HMS Hawke off the Isle of Wight causing two of her compartments to flood (a bleak forewarning perhaps).  At the time the ship was under the command of Captain Edward Smith, one of the most experienced seafaring men in the world.  He later transferred to the Titanic.  Violet Jessop was also on board as a stewardess.

The Olympic had an illustrious career being the scene of mutiny in 1912 and the only merchant ship to engage and sink a German U Boat during WW1.   Being identical to the Titanic it attracted many passengers to sail as a way of vicariously experiencing the voyage of its ill-fated sister ship until it was finally scrapped in 1937.

Hull 401 – The Titanic Ship

The Titanic ship was the second ship to be completed albeit a little later than originally planned (due to the mishaps of the Olympic).  It was yard no. 401.   She was launched on May 31st 1911 with an id no. 131428.  The mythical id no 3909 0N never existed (NO POPE backwards).  Her maiden voyage began on April 10th 1912 at which time she became the largest ocean liner in the world.  It sailed out of Southampton (England) to Cherbourg (France), to Cobh (Ireland) with its final destination being New York (USA).

Her mishaps were numerous prior to this maiden voyage.  During construction, 6 workers died, 246 injuries were recorded, and 28 of them “severe”, such as severed limbs.  On the launch day a piece of wood fell from the ship and killed a worker.  There was a near collision with the docked S.S New York as the suction snapped the tie ropes from its mooring.  Tugboats acted quickly to avert any danger.  It is ironic that it never reached either the ship New York or the port of New York.

She sank when five of her sixteen watertight compartments flooded when they were ripped asunder by a glancing iceberg (4 and it would have stayed afloat).  There have been some suggestions that if the other compartments had been opened it would have staggered the listing rather than let the water flood in from the top.

The Titanic had the capacity to carry 64 wooden lifeboats with a capacity for 4000 occupants but the White Star Line decided that 14 lifeboats (65 people) and 4 collapsibles (47 people) and 2 cutters (40 people) would suffice (accommodating 1178 people).  Board of Trade regulations stipulated that all vessels over 10,000 tons had to carry 16 lifeboats with a capacity for 990 occupants.  Out of the 2, 224 people on board only 710 survived partly due to the lifeboats being launched only partially full.  Those that foundered in the water were not due to a lack of lifejackets but rather hypothermia.  The captain of the Titanic Edward Smith went down with his ship.  Violet Jessop was on board as a stewardess and survived.

Hull 433 – The Britannic Ship

The Britannic ship was the final Olympic class liner to be built, partly due to cost, WW1 and new safety improvements being implemented as a result of the Titanic sinking.  She was launched in February 26th 1914 but never got to make her maiden voyage as a luxury liner.  WW1 interrupted her fitting and she was requisitioned on 13 November 1915 as a hospital ship from her storage location at Belfast. Repainted white with large red crosses and a horizontal green stripe, she was renamed HMHS (His Majesty’s Hospital Ship) and armed with four anti torpedo guns. After completing five successful voyages to and from the Middle East transporting the sick and wounded.  The Britannica was steaming at full speed into the Kea channel with 1066 people on board when it was hit by a torpedo on November 21st 1916 taking only 30 lives.  It was the largest ship lost during WW1.  Violet Jessop was on board as a nurse and survived.

Ships are referred to in the feminine because they are traditionally the name of the boat’s owner loved one (wife, daughter, mother). It has also been surmised that all ships were once dedicated to goddesses.  If they were still dedicated to the female deities they may not have sunk, perhaps Violet would have been a lucky name.  Interestingly enough none of the three vessels were ever christened.  Whether the new or old Gods were displeased with the White Star Line or a mixture of arrogance and inadequacy were the cause of the failure of the first Olympic class liners we will always surmise but never really know.  One thing is for sure you cannot avoid your fate, whatever it may be.

Pearse Fee

www.yesteryearessentials.com

Nutmeg for New York

New York History

On February 2nd 1653 New Amsterdam received municipal rights thus becoming a city.   We at present affectionately refer to it as New York.  The original span  (acquired by a wily Dutchman, Peter Minuit) was only a section of Lower Manhattan, but has throughout its tumultuous past been known as Fort Amsterdam, New Orange, Capitol City, Gotham and of course the Big Apple.

Purchase Price

During May 24th 1626 in order to legally safeguard the settlers’ investments, possessions and farms on Manhattan island, Minuit negotiated the “purchase” of Manhattan from the Lenape band of Manahatta Indians for 60 Dutch guilders worth of trade goods, which equates to just over $1000 today. Another popular version in this story of Manhattan claims that Minuit actually purchased the island from the wrong tribe (the Canarsee actually living in Brooklyn) while the true local people, the Weckquaesgeeks, were excluded from the transaction. This transaction is often viewed as beneficial only for the Dutch (the trading benefits were great for both parties) however it was not viewed this way at the time. This was the first legal change of name and possession for New York.

Fort Amsterdam

When originally settled in 1624 the area was claimed as a Dutch colony (New Netherlands).  To ensure its survival a fort was built to house the new inhabitants and protect them from harsh conditions and the Mohawk wars in the north.  This fortified town at the south end of Manhattan became New Amsterdam.

New York

Ceded by the Dutch Director General Peter Stuyvesant in 1664 to British warships it was renamed in June of 1665 in honor of the Duke of York and Albany.  The Dutch brokered a deal with the English that sought to guarantee New Netherlanders liberties, including religious freedom along with the nutmeg negotiation.  In 1667 when peace was brokered in the Treaty of Breda the Dutch were granted the tiny spice island of Run in the Banda islands, rich in nutmeg (and consequently mace) as long as they did not press their claim to New York.  A great deal for the British until you realize the wily Dutch once more obtained millions in the highly prized nutmeg.

In July 1673 the Dutch occupied the city and renamed it New Orange, but by November 1674 it was back to New York.  Ironically the Duke it was named after, reigning as James II of England would cede his crown and country to the Prince of Orange within 25 years and broker no deal in return.

Capitol City

New York was the U.S capital under the Articles of Confederation (1785 to 1788) and remained the first U.S capital under the Constitution until 1790.  It was an obvious choice due to its proximity to Europe, its naturally deep harbor and defenses started by the Dutch and re-enforced by the English.  Again, New York changed hands but not name.

Gotham

Gotham derives from an article by Washington Irvine (in 1807) that lampoons New York culture and politics as being base and uncouth.  Gat (Goat) ham (Home) is a place in Nottinghamshire England, which means homestead where goats are kept (in Middle English).

The Five Boroughs of New York

Manhattan named after the Manahatta Indian bands (Lenape & Canarsee) who had inhabited this land prior to the arrival of Europeans.

Brooklyn named after a Dutch town called “Breukelen”. The Dutch people established the city in 1634.

The Bronx named after Jonas Bronck, a farmer, brokered a treaty in 1642 with the Weckquaesgeek Indians.

Queens named for Catherine of Braganza, the Queen of England (Charles II wife).

Staten Island or states island (Staaten Eylandt) was named in honor of the Dutch parliament known as the Staten General in 1609 by the ironically English explorer Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch.

In 1898, New York (Manhattan), Brooklyn, The Bronx, Queens and Staten Island all merged together forming Greater New York, which is the total area of the city we know today.

The Big Apple

New York’s most famous nickname is the Big Apple. Several theories abound, so you can decide which suits the cities profile best on this one, if any.

It was first popularized in the 1920s by a New York Morning Telegraph sports writer by the name of John J Fitzgerald.  He references it but does not give its origins.  The Big Apple was referred to (by a disgruntled Kansas City representative) as a city that received a disproportionate percentage of the national sap (regarding government funding).

Having been previously known as New Orange the loyal English would refer to it as an apple to simulate the stark difference between the English apple and the Dutch orange and further their claim to the territory. (The differences between apples and oranges)

In the early 19th century a Quaker nurseryman Jonathan Jessop (also Jessup) developed a variety of apple on his springwood farm near York, Pennsylvania.  Although lopsided it was tart and sweet with resilience for freshness and tasted better over time, a bit like the city itself.

Claimed by all and owned by none the myths surrounding the city that never sleeps are as varied and enigmatic as the inhabitants of the boroughs themselves.  Throughout its existence in any name it has been both reviled and attracted by the rich and poor alike, it accepts everything and everyone.  Still, it is ingrained in the heart of history by all as NEW YORK.

by Pearse Fee

www.yesteryearessentials.com

%d bloggers like this: